The ankle, unlike the common mistake made, isn’t a joint, but an anatomical region including 4 joints: the talocrural joint, the subtalar joint and the tibiofibular joints (inferior and superior – which is located in the knee). The bones forming the ankle are the tibia and fibula, ending with both malleoli (bony protuberances on each side of the ankle), articulating with the talus sitting on top of the calcaneus (which is the bone forming the heel).
The ankle is a key weight bearing joint in the gait mechanism, allowing the push off, initiating the movement of walking. The movements allowed by the ankle are the plantar and dorsiflexion, which are made in the sagittal plane, as well as the more complex inversion and eversion made in the frontal plane.
The two main groups of muscles attaching around the ankle are the “shin” anteriorly (mainly the tibialis anterior and posterior) and the calves posteriorly (gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris).